FBI: Boston suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev followed ‘radical Islam’

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Deceased Boston Marathon bombing suspect Tamerlan Tsarnaev was identified by a foreign government as a “follower of radical Islam and a strong believer” whose personality had changed drastically in just a year, according to the FBI.

As investigators considered possible motives for Monday’s fatal bombings, U.S. authorities acknowledged that an unnamed government had contacted the FBI to say the 26-year-old ethnic Chechen “had changed drastically” since 2010 and was preparing to leave the United States “to join unspecified underground groups,” according to an official statement from the FBI.

U.S. officials have not named the foreign nation, but it is presumed to be Russia. Tsarnaev traveled there in 2012 and stayed for six months.

Tamerlan Tsarnaev and his brother, Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, 19, came to the U.S. from Russia about a decade ago as ethnic Chechen refugees and were granted asylum, law enforcement sources have said. Tamerlan, who was killed in a gun battle with police early Friday morning Boston time, was a legal permanent U.S. resident. Dzhokhar, who became a citizen Sept. 11, 2012, was captured after a Friday night shootout with police and remains hospitalized in serious condition. He has not yet been charged.
“The FBI requested but did not receive more specific or additional information from the foreign government,” the statement read.According to the FBI, the foreign government had requested information on the older brother, and the agency responded by checking U.S. government databases for information on “derogatory” telephone communications, online promotion of radical activity, associations with other persons of interest, travel history and plans, and education history. The FBI also interviewed the suspect and family members and found no terrorism activity, the agency said.

The disclosure comes as some U.S. lawmakers are urging that the surviving suspect be treated as a foreign combatant, and not simply a criminal suspect.

Family members and acquaintances have painted starkly contrasting portraits of the suspects. Classmates and others have described the younger brother as pleasant, but the older brother as intense and given to occasional outbursts.

At the Cambridge mosque near where the bombing suspects lived, two worshipers who showed up for Saturday’s prayer service recalled seeing both men.

Tamerlan Tsarnaev was thrown out of the mosque — the Islamic Society of Boston, in Cambridge — about three months ago, after he stood up and shouted at the imam during a Friday prayer service, they said. The imam had held up slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King Jr. as an example of a man to emulate, recalled one worshiper who would give his name only as Muhammad.

Islam is the Ultimate Sleeper Cell

Koran1We don’t know whether Dzhokar Tsarneav and Tamerlan Tsarneav were aligned with any Muslim terrorist organization, but there is no reason that they had to be.

Most recent Muslim terrorist plots were carried out by “lone wolves”, individuals or small groups, who received their Islamist indoctrination and explosives training through the Islamic internet of Jihadist social media.

It may turn out that the Tsarneavs attended a terrorist training camp at some point in the past. But it may be just as likely that they never did. Terrorist training camps still exist, but they are becoming relics when it comes to the new type of pop up terrorism favored by Jihadists abroad.

The ideal Muslim terrorist has never attended a training camp or met with a terrorist chieftain. He has never even traveled to a suspect country. His indoctrination comes from Jihadist videos of Islamic sermons and battle scenes from the front lines of Islamic terror. His bomb making knowledge comes from Jihadist training materials scattered around social media which tell him to make bombs and how to use them to the most devastating effect.

Sleeper? Every believer in Islam is potentially a sleeper, ready to undergo what the experts call “radicalization”. But radicalization is largely a misnomer. The proper term is religiosity.

As a Muslim becomes more religious, his thoughts turn to Jihad, whether supporting it directly or indirectly. The religiosity need not be overt. The terrorist can be outwardly secular, but inwardly religious. He doesn’t have to grow a beard or leave Korans everywhere. Many don’t. The essence of Jihad is that it allows a Muslim to live a secular life so long as he dedicates himself to the fight against non-Muslims.Koran-book

Every believer in Islam is a potential terrorist. Islam is the ultimate sleeper cell. Terrorism is coded into the ideological DNA of a religion built on war.

The populist strains of Islam today are still militant. There is a sizable gap between the government clerics who only promote some forms of terrorism and the populist clerics who preach doctrines of total war.

The Tsarneavs need not have been sleepers. It is enough that they were Muslims. Like so many others, they were ticking time bombs who could at any moment decide that the Jersey Shore lifestyle so many Muslim youth adopt in the West isn’t enough for them and turn to Islam. And that is almost certainly what finally happened.

Islam carries its own transnational patriotism with it. It merges with a hundred ethnic nationalisms, like Chechen terrorism, but it links together Sunni Muslims everywhere. Its message is of a better world under Islamic rule.

Muslims who admire the Jihadis in Afghanistan, Syria, Chechnya, Mali, Israel, Thailand and a hundred other places eventually either want to join in or help out.

What Dzhokar Tsarneav and Tamerlan Tsarneav did may be horrific to us, but in their culture, cruelty and brutality are the privileges of the warrior. In Islam, the blood of non-Muslims is worth less than that of Muslims. Countless Fatwas have provided justification and even encouraged the murder of non-Muslim civilians.

koran-peaceTo us the actions of the Tsarneav brothers may be baffling, but from their point of view all they did was the equivalent of joining the US Army. Except they joined the Army of Islam.

The experts will talk about radicalism, about disaffection and foreign policy and all the rest. And all those empty words will miss the point.

Dzhokar Tsarneav and Tamerlan Tsarneav were Islamic patriots. They believed in a world ruled under Islam. That is a belief that was born with Islam and predates any local conflicts with Russia. It’s a religious war and it’s a national war. It’s Muslim patriotism for a fatherland that encompasses a world of slaves under the dead boot of their prophet.

The Tsarneav brothers probably weren’t sleepers. We’re the ones who are sleeping.

About the writer: Daniel Greenfield, a Shillman Journalism Fellow at the Freedom Center, is a New York writer focusing on radical Islam. He is completing a book on the international challenges America faces in the 21st century.

Sleeper Cells in America

What would history be without turning points?

Will the bombing of the Boston Marathon this week become an event on a par with the Battle at Old North Bridge in Concord, or the upstart Confederacy firing on Fort Sumter, or Japan’s sneak attack on Pearl Harbor? Will a majority of Americans become galvanized to action? Now would be a very good time for an American turning point.

America is in deep, deep trouble, under assault from without and within. Half of America has been more interested in the nauseatingly worthless effluvium surrounding the Kardashians, Justin Bieber, et. al., than seriously contemplating the consequences of an obscenely-bloated government, which is intent on seizing what’s left of their battered freedom. In a right-side-up world, the Boston bombing, which killed a few but maimed so many, should be an event writ large in the sky, a long-overdue turning point…..a shot heard clearly all across this country.

This week we were also threatened with having our second amendment rights taken away via unconstitutional, everyday legislation. The security of a free state depends on its people’s God-given right to keep and bear arms, a right which shall not be infringed. Obama barely lost the argument, not because several democrat senators suddenly realized the founders’ compelling wisdom, but because their cowardice made them more fearful for their sorry jobs come next election time, had they been stupid enough to vote Obama’s wishes.

In light of the Boston bombing, the Senate vote should have been 100-0 for the second amendment, and against Obama’s desires. But, Obama will have his revenge, as he will undoubtedly infringe on the second amendment with a rash of unconstitutional executive orders. Disarmed countries are ripe for killers with ambition, be they homegrown or foreign born.

But that’s a nearsighted view of the actual low state of this nation. We still have a constitutionally ineligible fraud in the Oval Office, damaging this country’s future in any way he and his cohorts can conjure. Before taking office in 2009, Obama said “We are only a few days away from fundamentally transforming the United States of America.” Transforming America into what, exactly? Obama was not elected to fundamentally transform this country into anything, other than what the Constitution says it shall be. That’s all his oath required of him, and permitted him to do. Who does he think he is, anyway?

Obama’s government is full of America-hating bureaucrats and appointees. Some are Muslim sympathizers, some are Marxist idealogues. Some are admitted Socialists or Communists. Some are useful idiots, just doing what they’re told, in order to collect obscenely-ridiculous salaries and perks. Many are content to remain willfully ignorant to what is going on. The rest, and hopefully the majority, are just too scared to stand or speak up against it. Political correctness, media malfeasance, and public apathy allowed Obama to begin his political career in the living room of Bill Ayers and Bernardine Dorhn, home-grown American bombers, who used their bombs for terrorism, just like the bombs used this week in Boston. And now, Barack Hussein Obama, a man who was never properly vetted for office, and who has never run so much as a fruit stand, is President? Is he insane, or are we?

This president has bowed and scraped and apologized all over the world for America’s supposed ‘transgressions’. We have a president who never underwent a background check, courtesy of a sycophant media, before he was elected to office. As president, he has spent this country into a financial hole we may never climb out of. He has met with the Muslim Brotherhood on many occasions in the White House. He encouraged the Muslim Brotherhood uprisings throughout the middle east. He just financed and armed the Muslim Brotherhood backed government in Egypt. The Muslim Brotherhood is Israel’s sworn enemy, and ultimately no friend of America, either. Why would an American president do these things?

Obamacare, which is unconstitutional, in spite of the Supreme Court’s ruling, is about total control of American citizens, which correlates to a corresponding loss of American liberty. Where is there any Constitutional provision for government to impose itself into the doctor-patient relationship? Obama has criminally rewarded his cronies and supporters with money from the public treasury. He has defied and defiled the Constitution. He has sued states which had the audacity to try to clean up their voter rolls. He sued Arizona for trying to curtail their illegal alien invasion. He refuses to make America’s Southwest border secure. Why would an American president do these things?

Obama abandoned American citizens to die in the attack on Bengazi. He has taken great pains to promote Islam, while refusing to call Islamic terrorism what it is. His department of Homeland Security has ordered upwards of 2 billion rounds of ammunition, plus military-style vehicles and equipment. Why would the DHS need to become a quasi-military entity? Has the Posse Comitatus Act been revoked? What about NDAA, and all the other powers Obama has granted himself? Why would any American president do these things to his country? To his countrymen?

The bombing in Boston should be a giant wake-up call to those many Americans who’ve been watching from the sidelines as their country has been systematically crippled from the inside. As of this writing, it’s still not known if the bombing brothers from Boston were part of a larger sleeper cell, but, certainly, that will come out soon.

Nevertheless, isn’t it about time to connect the dots, America? The biggest anti-American sleeper cell in this country is holed up at 1600 Pennsylvania Avenue.

John Knapp
April 19, 2013

Republicans want Boston bombing suspect treated as enemy combatant, sparking Miranda debate

Key Republicans are calling on the Obama administration to declare captured Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the 19-year-old suspect in the bombings at the Boston Marathon, an enemy combatant subject to the laws of war so intelligence officials can continue to interrogate him for as long as they deem necessary.

Authorities captured Tsarnaev in Watertown, Mass. huddled and bleeding profusely in a private boat. He was hospitalized Saturday after being further wounded in a firefight with police Friday.

Federal law enforcement officials are invoking the public-safety exception and will pursue their investigation into the Boston bombings for the at least the next 48 without reading Mr. Tsarnaev’s his Miranda rights against self-incrimination.

That decision by the Obama administration is reviving a contentious and constitutionally charged debate over how best to handle interrogations and terrorism cases under U.S. laws governing the criminal justice system and the law of war.

The FBI says the exception permits law enforcement to engage in a “limited and focused unwarned interrogation” and and allows the government to introduce the suspect’s statements during interrogation as direct evidence in any subsequent criminal trial.

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The FBI has released a clearer image of Suspect No 2 in the Boston bombings, Dzhokhar A. Tsarnaev, age 19. (Courtesy of the FBI)

But Republican Sens. John McCain, Lindsey Graham, Kelly Ayotte, as well as Rep. Peter King, argue that relying on the public safety exception is a national security mistake.

The group of GOP lawmakers argues that the blasts at the end of the Monday’s marathon that killed three and injured more than 170 people were clearly an attempt to terrorize a major American city, and the accused perpetrators should be treated as enemy combatants, not common criminals attempting to profit from a criminal enterprise.

“The suspect, based upon his actions, clearly is a good candidate for enemy combatant status,” they said in a statement. “We do not want this suspect to remain silent.”

While the group applauded the Obama administration’s decision to have the High-Value Detainee Interrogation Group, or HIG question Mr. Tsarnaev, they worry that that the temporary time frame the public safety exception to the Miranda law provides will be far too short to allow the type of questioning that needs to occur.

The HIG, which President Obama created in 2009, is made up of agents from the FBI, CIA and Defense Intelligence Agency, who follow strict policies on acceptable interrogation practices and work together to share the information across their multiple intelligence agencies.

“We are encouraged our High value detainee interrogation team (HIG) is now involved and working to gather intelligence about how these terrible acts were committed and possibility of future attacks,” he said. “A decision to not read Miranda rights to the suspect was sound and in our national security interests.”

“However, we have concerns that limiting this investigation to 48 hours and exclusively relying on the public-safety exception to Miranda, could very well be a national security mistake,” they continued. “It could severely limit our ability to gather critical information about future attacks from this suspect.”

The American Civil Liberties Union quickly weighed in on the opposite side of the Miranda argument Saturday, arguing that invoking the rare public-safety exception triggered by the need to protect the public from immediate danger is only a temporary solution.

ACLU Executive Director Anthony Romero told the Boston Globe that the exception applies only when there’s a continued threat to public safety and is not an pen-ended exception to the Miranda rule.

“The public-safety exception to Miranda should be a narrow and limited one, and it would be wholly inappropriate and unconstitutional to use it to create the case against the suspect,” Mr. Romero said. “The public safety exception would be meaningless if interrogations are given an open-ended time horizon.”

Requirements on law enforcement officials to read ordinary criminals their Miranda rights come from a 1966 Supreme Court case. In order to protect against self-incrimination, police must first read suspects their rights if they want to use statements at trial that a defendant made while in custody.

The focus right now, the Republican lawmakers countered, should be on gathering intelligence from the suspect, not on a future domestic criminal trial that may take years to complete.

“We hope the Obama administration will consider the enemy combatant option because it is allowed by national security statutes and U.S. Supreme Court decisions,” they added.

Following the statement, the group of four Republicans also laid out the case for the administration relying on the law of war in their treatment of Mr. Tsarnaev, pointing to Supreme Court-tested elements of the military commission law Mr. Graham wrote and shepherded through the Senate.

According to that law, American citizens who attack the homeland or collaborate with U.S. enemies can be held as enemy combatants and are not entitled to Miranda rights or an attorney. The questioning of an enemy combatant for national security purposes has no limit or scope.

“In a case like this it could take weeks to prepare the questions are needed to be asked and months before intelligence gathering is completed,” the lawmakers argue.

Because the suspect is an American citizen, any future trial would be in the civilian courts, not through a military commission, a provision Mr. Graham personally authored.

White House Partners with Muslim Brotherhood Front

ISNAlogoThe Islamic Society of North America (ISNA), a group with Muslim Brotherhood origins and an unindicted co-conspirator in the Holy Land Foundation terror-financing trial, recently toured the White House and met with multiple officials. According to the group, Paul Monteiro, Associate Director of the Office of Public Engagement, “cited ISNA as his primary means of outreach to the American Muslim community.”

The Obama administration’s close relationship with ISNA is about more than photo ops and press releases. It is about policy formulation. The input of ISNA is so treasured that the officials coached the organization on how to engage the White House.

On March 8, ISNA President Mohamed Magid joined 10 other religious leaders in a 90-minute conversation with President Obama about immigration reform. Also present was senior White House adviser Valerie Jarrett, who spoke at ISNA’s 2009 convention. Three days later, Magid took part in a meeting with President Obama where he got “recommendations” in preparation for his Middle East trip, including some from groups with a history of defending Hezbollah.

“Over the past two years, I-along with my White House colleagues-have benefited from the advice of many of your [Magid’s] organizations through our Office of Public Engagement,” said Deputy National Security Adviser Denis McDonough on March 6, 2011 during a speech at the mosque that Magid leads.

ISNA’s White House tour included spending time with George Selim, the White House Director for Community Partnerships, who is an annual speaker at ISNA’s conventions. Selim previously admitted that “hundreds” of meetings have taken place between government officials and the Council on American-Islamic Relations, another group with Brotherhood origins that was designated an unindicted co-conspirator.

The U.S. government stated that ISNA is a U.S. Muslim Brotherhood entity when it designated it as an unindicted co-conspirator in the trial of the Holy Land Foundation. A federal judge upheld the designation in 2009 because of “ample” evidence linking ISNA to Hamas. A 1991 U.S. Muslim Brotherhood memo lists ISNA and several of its components among “our organizations and the organizations of our friends,” and a 1988 document says it is part of the Brotherhood “apparatus.”

The FBI had sources inside the U.S. Brotherhood network reporting that ISNA was a front as early as 1987. The source traveled on behalf of ISNA and allied groups and he told the FBI that he is “convinced that this organization has a secret agenda which includes the spread of the Islamic Revolution to all non-Islamic governments in the world which does include the United States.”

The source provided a secret ISNA document in 1988 that “clearly states that ISNA has a political goal to exert influence on political decision making and legislation in North America that is contrary to their certification in their not-for-profit tax returns,” says a declassified FBI memo.

ISNA’s White House tour was part of its Founders Committee meeting. Even if it were true that newer moderate leaders have made ISNA evolve, this event wasn’t about them. It was about those who established it as a Muslim Brotherhood front and it still was warmly received by the White House.

A 2009 Hudson Institute study concluded that “All but one of the individuals on the ISNA founding documents remain active either in ISNA or one of its affiliated organizations,” undermining the position that the ISNA of today is different than the original ISNA.

A good example is Sayyid Syeed. He is an ISNA founder and served as its secretary-general from 1994 to 2006. He was recorded in 2006 stating “our job is to change the constitution of America,” as seen in the Grand Deception documentary. Now, he is ISNA’s point man for interfaith engagement, efforts it often showcases as proof of its moderation. He even spoke at the National Prayer Breakfast in front of 100 evangelical leaders.

As the declassified FBI memos from the 1980s warned, ISNA is using its position as a representative of the Muslim-American community to influence policies and that includes those related to national security.

ISNA President Magid was chosen to serve on the Department of Homeland Security’s Countering Violent Extremism Working Group. Even though he accused elements of the U.S. government of being “intent on dismantling Muslim organizations and bringing them down” in 2004, the Obama administration saw him as a suitable adviser to the Department of Homeland Security.

The outcry over the content of counter-terrorism training materials offered ISNA another opportunity. On February 8, 2012, ISNA and its allies met with the director of the FBI to discuss the review of the training. Afterwards, the FBI said it would consider forming an advisory panel with the meeting participants to help cleanse the training.

Instead of working with anti-Islamist Muslim groups like the American Islamic Leadership Coalition or the LibForAll Foundation, the Obama administration is embracing the larger Muslim Brotherhood legacy groups. The way to engage in the Muslim-American community is by discrediting the Islamist theme, not by giving a platform to those broadcasting it.

This article was sponsored by the Institute on Religion and Democracy.

Allen West: Can we investigate radical Islamic terror now?

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Former Republican Representative from Florida, Allen West

Former Florida Rep. Allen West issued a scathing statement on his Facebook page Friday, in response to the ongoing manhunt for one of the suspects in the Boston Marathon bombings.

“Let me be very clear. The terrorist attack in Boston and evolving events indicate we have a domestic radical Islamic terror problem in America,” he wrote. “No more excuses. No more apologies. We are in a war of ideological wills and we shall prevail.”

He also recounted previous congressional attempts to hold hearings on radical Islamism.

“When Rep. Peter King attempted to have hearings on domestic terrorism, he was attacked for being racist,” Mr. West wrote.

He said: “We must no longer allow the disciples of political correctness and the acolytes of the Muslim Brotherhood (CAIR, ISNA, MPAC, MAS) to preach to us some misconceived definition of tolerance and subservience.”

CAIR stands for the Council on American-Islamic Relations. ISNA is the Islamic Society of North America. MPAC is the Muslim Public Affairs Council. And MAS is the Muslim American Society.

Bill Cosby “I’m 83 and Tired”

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Bill Cosby “I’m 83 and Tired” I’ve worked hard since I was 17.  Except for when I was doing my National Service, I put in 50-hour weeks, and didn’t call in sick in nearly 40 years.  I made a reasonable salary, but I didn’t inherit my job or my income, and I worked to get where I am.  Given the economy, it looks as though retirement was a bad idea, and I’m tired. Very tired.

I’m tired of being told that I have to “spread the wealth” to people who don’t have my work ethic.  I’m tired of being told the government will take the money I earned, by force if necessary, and give it to people too lazy to earn it.

I’m tired of being told that Islam is a “Religion of Peace,” when every day I can read dozens of stories of Muslim men killing their sisters, wives and daughters for their family “honor”; of Muslims rioting over some slight offense; Muslims murdering Christian and Jews because they aren’t “believers”; Muslims burning schools for girls; Muslims stoning teenage rape victims to death for “adultery”; Muslims mutilating the genitals of little girls; all in the name of Allah, because the Qur’an and Shari’a law tells them to.

I’m tired of being told that out of “tolerance for other cultures” we must let Saudi Arabia and other Arab countries use our oil money to fund mosques and Madrasa Islamic schools to preach hate in Australia , New Zealand , UK, America and Canada , while no one from these countries are allowed to fund a church, synagogue or religious school in Saudi Arabia or any other Arab country to teach love and tolerance..

I’m tired of being told I must lower my living standard to fight global warming, which no one is allowed to debate.

I’m tired of being told that drug addicts have a disease, and I must help support and treat them, and pay for the damage they do. Did a giant germ rush out of a dark alley, grab them, and stuff white powder up their noses or stick a needle in their arm while they tried to fight it off?

I’m tired of hearing wealthy athletes, entertainers and politicians of all parties talking about innocent mistakes, stupid mistakes or youthful mistakes, when we all know they think their only mistake was getting caught.  I’m tired of people with a sense of entitlement, rich or poor.

I’m really tired of people who don’t take responsibility for their lives and actions. I’m tired of hearing them blame the government, or discrimination or big-whatever for their problems.

I’m also tired and fed up with seeing young men and women in their teens and early 20’s be-deck themselves in tattoos and face studs, thereby making themselves unemployable and claiming money from the Government.

Yes, I’m damn tired. But I’m also glad to be 83.. Because, mostly, I’m not going to have to see the world these people are making. I’m just sorry for my granddaughter and their children. Thank God I’m on the way out and not on the way in. There is no way this will be widely publicized, unless each of us sends it on!  This is your chance to make a difference.

“I’m 83 and I’m tired. If you don’t agree you are part of the problem!

Who is Ed Mezvinsky?

abc_chelsea_mezvinsky_091130_mnEdward “Ed” Mezvinsky, born January 17, 1937, is a former Democratic congressman. He represented Iowa’s 1st congressional district in the United States House of Representatives for two terms, from 1973 to 1977. He sat on the House Judiciary Committee that decided the fate of Richard Nixon. He and the Clinton’s were very politically intertwined for years. In March 2001, Mezvinsky was indicted and later pleaded guilty to 31 of 69 charges of bank fraud, mail fraud, and wire fraud. He was sentenced to 80 months in (Federal) prison. Ed Mezvinsky embezzled more than $10 million dollars from people via both a ponzi scheme and the notorious Nigerian e-mail scams. After serving five years in federal prison, he was released in April 2008. He remained on federal probation through 2011, and still owes $9.4 million in restitution to his victims.

So who is Ed Mezvinsky? He’s Chelsea Clinton’s father-in law. Has anyone heard mention of this in any of the media? If this guy were Jenna or Barbara Bush’s, or better yet, Sarah Palin’s daughter’s, father-in- law, the news would be an every day headline, large type! Some say there is no double standard in politics. Ha-ha-ha-ha-ha!!!!!!! Verified at Snopes.com

Job force Hits New Low but Unemployment Goes down?

There are less people in the work force since 1979 with 90 million people no longer even attempting to find a job.  However, if you look at the unemployment numbers, they would suggest a different picture.  Right now, the unemployment rate is hovering around 7.6%, but if you included those who can work who don’t, it would be around 17%!  This tends to paint a different picture.

It doesn’t take a mathematician to realize that having less people in the workforce (and subsequently not paying income tax) hurts the economy.  A healthy economy needs to have a good amount of cash flow exchanging hands, investment go up and people relying on a job over the government.

According to ZeroHedge.com:

Things just keep getting worse for the American worker, and by implication US economy, where as we have shown many times before, it pays just as well to sit back and collect disability and various welfare and entitlement checks, than to work .The best manifestation of this: the number of people not in the labor force which in March soared by a massive 663,000 to a record 90 million Americans who are no longer even looking for work. This was the biggest monthly increase in people dropping out of the labor force since January 2012, when the BLS did its census recast of the labor numbers. And even worse, the labor force participation rate plunged from an already abysmal 63.5% to 63.3% – the lowest since 1979! But at least it helped with the now painfully grotesque propaganda that the US unemployment rate is “improving.”

People not in labor force:

Labor Force

Labor participation rate:

Labor Force Rate